Wood Hardness - Janka Chart

When it comes to making a distinction between wood which is suitable for wooden floors and the rest we simply refer to hardwood and softwood. But actually there is more because the total number of wood species is estimated to be more than 10000.
Posted on06-07-2016 by 1771
Wood Hardness - Janka Chart

When it comes to making a distinction between wood which is suitable for wooden floors and the rest we simply refer to hardwood and softwood. But actually there is more because the total number of wood species is estimated to be more than 10 000.

To understand better the differences between wood species we have Janka Hardness Scale or Janka Wood Chart.
It evolved from the Brinell scale, a standardised hardness test developed for the engineering and metallurgy fields and has been in use since 1922 and became an ASTM standard in 1927. Since then the Janka Scale has become worldwide accepted as the international standard for measuring wood hardness.

It is very useful in the wood working industry and especially in the wood flooring industry mainly because it helps in choosing the suitable wood for a particular floor and it helps the flooring specialist to properly approach and plan the installation process.

Janka wood hardness test schematicHow it works? It measures the force required to embed an 11.28 mm (.444 in) steel ball into wood to half the ball's diameter. This is done in a laboratory.Janka hardness test measured result schematic The hardness of wood varies depending on the direction of the wood grain. Testing perpendicular to the length of the grain, is said to be of "side hardness". Testing the cut surface, on end grain is called a test of "end hardness". In the majority of the situations only the first result is used.
The result can be expressed in pounds-force (lbf), kilograms-force (kgf), newtons (N) or kilonewtons (kN) and also in Janka (ex 1000 Janka).

Janka Hardness
SpeciesForce: Pounds-Force (Newtons)
Australian Buloke 5,060 lbf (22,500 N) 5060
Schinopsis brasiliensis , Quebracho, Barauna, Chamacoco 4,800 lbf (21,000 N) 4800
Schinopsis balansae , Quebracho Colorado, Red Quebracho 4,570 lbf (20,300 N) 4570
Lignum vitae , Guayacan, Pockenholz 4,500 lbf (20,000 N) 4500
Piptadenia Macrocarpa ,Curupay, Angico Preto, Brazilian Tiger Mahogany 3,840 lbf (17,100 N) 3840
Snakewood , Letterhout, Piratinera Guinensis 3,800 lbf (17,000 N) 3800
Brazilian Olivewood 3,700 lbf (16,000 N) 3700
Brazilian Ebony 3,692 lbf (16,420 N) 3692
Ipê , Brazilian Walnut, Lapacho 3,684 lbf (16,390 N) 3684
African Pearwood, Moabi 3,680 lbf (16,400 N) 3680
Grey Ironbark 3,664 lbf (16,300 N) 3664
Bolivian Cherry 3,650 lbf (16,200 N) 3650
Lapacho 3,640 lbf (16,200 N) 3640
Cumaru , Brazilian Teak 3,540 lbf (15,700 N) 3540
Sucupira , Brazilian Chestnut, Tiete Chestnut 3,417 lbf (15,200 N) 3417
Ebony 3,220 lbf (14,300 N) 3220
Massaranduba , Brazilian Redwood, Paraju 3,190 lbf (14,200 N) 3190
Yvyraro 3,040 lbf (13,500 N) 3040
Strand Woven Bamboo 3,000 lbf (13,000 N) 3000
Bloodwood 2,900 lbf (13,000 N) 2900
Red Mahogany , Turpentine 2,697 lbf (12,000 N) 2697
Live Oak 2,680 lbf (11,900 N) 2680
Southern Chestnut 2,670 lbf (11,900 N) 2670
Spotted Gum 2,473 lbf (11,000 N) 2473
Brazilian Cherry, Jatoba 2,350 lbf (10,500 N) 2350
Mesquite 2,345 lbf (10,430 N) 2345
Golden Teak 2,330 lbf (10,400 N) 2330
Guatambú, Kyrandy, Balfourodendron riedelianum 2,240 lbf (10,000 N) 2240
Santos Mahogany , Bocote , Cabreuva , Honduran Rosewood 2,200 lbf (9,800 N) 2200
Pradoo 2,170 lbf (9,700 N) 2170
Brazilian Koa 2,160 lbf (9,600 N) 2160
Brushbox 2,135 lbf (9,500 N) 2135
Osage Orange 2,040 lbf (9,100 N) 2040
Karri 2,030 lbf (9,000 N) 2030
Sydney Blue Gum 2,023 lbf (9,000 N) 2023
Bubinga 1,980 lbf (8,800 N) 1980
Cameron 1,940 lbf (8,600 N) 1940
Tallowwood 1,933 lbf (8,600 N) 1933
Merbau 1,925 lbf (8,560 N) 1925
Amendoim 1,912 lbf (8,500 N) 1912
Jarrah 1,910 lbf (8,500 N) 1910
Purpleheart 1,860 lbf (8,300 N) 1860
Goncalo Alves , Tigerwood 1,850 lbf (8,200 N) 1850
Hickory , Pecan , Satinwood 1,820 lbf (8,100 N) 1820
Afzelia , Doussie , Australian Wormy Chestnut 1,810 lbf (8,100 N) 1810
Bangkirai 1,798 lbf (8,000 N) 1798
Rosewood 1,780 lbf (7,900 N) 1780
African Padauk 1,725 lbf (7,670 N) 1725
Blackwood 1,720 lbf (7,700 N) 1720
Merbau 1,712 lbf (7,620 N) 1712
Kempas 1,710 lbf (7,600 N) 1710
Black Locust 1,700 lbf (7,600 N) 1700
Highland Beech 1,686 lbf (7,500 N) 1686
Wenge , Red Pine , Hornbeam 1,630 lbf (7,300 N) 1630
Tualang 1,624 lbf (7,220 N) 1624
Zebrawood 1,575 lbf (7,010 N) 1575
True Pine, Timborana 1,570 lbf (7,000 N) 1570
Peroba 1,557 lbf (6,930 N) 1557
Sapele , Sapelli , Kupa'y 1,510 lbf (6,700 N) 1510
European Beech 1,510 lbf (6,700 N) 1510
Curupixa 1,490 lbf (6,600 N) 1490
Sweet Birch 1,470 lbf (6,500 N) 1470
Hard maple , Sugar Maple 1,450 lbf (6,400 N) 1450
Caribbean Walnut 1,390 lbf (6,200 N) 1390
Kentucky coffeetree 1,390 lbf (6,200 N) 1390
Natural Bamboo (represents one species) 1,380 lbf (6,100 N) 1380
Australian Cypress 1,375 lbf (6,120 N) 1375
White Oak 1,360 lbf (6,000 N) 1360
Tasmanian oak 1,350 lbf (6,000 N) 1350
Ribbon Gum 1,349 lbf (6,000 N) 1349
Ash (White) 1,320 lbf (5,900 N) 1320
American Beech 1,300 lbf (5,800 N) 1300
Red Oak (Northern) 1,290 lbf (5,700 N) 1290
Caribbean Heart Pine 1,280 lbf (5,700 N) 1280
Yellow Birch , Iroko 1,260 lbf (5,600 N) 1260
Movingui 1,230 lbf (5,500 N) 1230
Heart pine 1,225 lbf (5,450 N) 1225
Carapa guianensis , Brazilian Mesquite 1,220 lbf (5,400 N) 1220
Larch 1,200 lbf (5,300 N) 1200
Carbonized Bamboo (represents one species) 1,180 lbf (5,200 N) 1180
Teak 1,155 lbf (5,140 N) 1155
Cocobolo 1,136 lbf (5,050 N) 1136
Brazilian Eucalyptus, Rose Gum 1,125 lbf (5,000 N) 1125
English Oak 1,120 lbf (5,000 N) 1120
Makore 1,100 lbf (4,900 N) 1100
Siberian Larch 1,100 lbf (4,900 N) 1100
Peruvian Walnut 1,080 lbf (4,800 N) 1080
Boreal 1,023 lbf (4,550 N) 1023
Black Walnut , North American Walnut 1,010 lbf (4,500 N) 1010
European Oak 1,010 lbf (4,500 N) 1010
Cherry 995 lbf (4,430 N) 995
European Ash 994 lbf (4,400 N) 994
Black Cherry , Imbuia 950 lbf (4,200 N) 950
Red Maple 950 lbf (4,200 N) 950
Boire 940 lbf (4,200 N) 940
Paper Birch 910 lbf (4,000 N) 910
Eastern Red Cedar 900 lbf (4,000 N) 900
Southern Yellow Pine (Longleaf) 870 lbf (3,900 N) 870
Lacewood , Leopardwood 840 lbf (3,700 N) 840
African Mahogany 830 lbf (3,700 N) 830
Mahogany , Honduran Mahogany 800 lbf (3,600 N) 800
Parana 780 lbf (3,500 N) 780
Sycamore 770 lbf (3,400 N) 770
Box Elder 720 lbf (3,200 N) 720
Shedua 710 lbf (3,200 N) 710
Radiata Pine 710 lbf (3,200 N) 710
Silver Maple 700 lbf (3,100 N) 700
Southern Yellow Pine ( Loblolly and Shortleaf ) 690 lbf (3,100 N) 690
Douglas Fir 660 lbf (2,900 N) 660
Western Juniper 626 lbf (2,780 N) 626
Alder (Red) 590 lbf (2,600 N) 590
Larch 590 lbf (2,600 N) 590
Douglas Fir 580 lbf (2,500 N) 580
Pine 580 lbf (2,500 N) 580
Chestnut 540 lbf (2,400 N) 540
Hemlock 500 lbf (2,200 N) 500
Western White Pine 420 lbf (1,900 N) 420
Basswood , Fir 410 lbf (1,800 N) 410
Eastern White Pine 380 lbf (1,700 N) 380
Spruce 350 lbf (1,600 N) 350
Balsa 100 lbf (440 N) 100
Cuipo 22 lbf (98 N) 22
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